Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents.1–3 Listening to popular music is considered by society to be a part of growing up.2 Music provides entertainment and distraction from problems and serves as a way to relieve tension and boredom. Some studies have reported that adolescents use popular music to deal with loneliness and to take control of their emotional status or mood.2,4 Music also can provide a background for romance and serve as the basis for establishing relationships in diverse settings.2 Adolescents use music in their process of identity formation,4–11 and their music preference provides them a means to achieve group identity and integration into the youth culture.5,7–9,12,13 Some authors have suggested that popular music provides adolescents with the means to resolve unconscious conflicts related to their particular developmental stage2,7,12,14 and that their music preference might reflect the level of turmoil of this stage.14–17
Adolescents' choice of music and their reactions to and interpretations of it vary with age, culture, and ethnicity.2,13,14,18–25 Research has shown that there also is a difference in these variables between the genders.25 Female adolescents are more likely than male adolescents to use music to reflect their emotional state, in particular when feeling lonely or “down.”2,26,27 Male adolescents, on the other hand, are more likely to use music as a stimulant, as a way to “boost” their energy level, or to create a more positive image of themselves.2,4,26
To understand the importance of music in the life of adolescents, a survey performed in the early 1990s of 2760 American adolescents aged 14 through 16 years revealed that they listened to music an average of 40 hours per week.28 In another study in 2000, North et al4 found that a sample of 2465 adolescents in England reported listening to music for an average of 2.45 hours per day. On a study performed in 2005 to assess media use of 8- to 18-year-olds in the United States, Roberts et al25 reported that on a given day, 85% of 8- to 18-year-olds listen to music. Although time devoted to listening to music varies with age group, American youth listen to music from 1.5 to 2.5 hours per day. Still, a study performed with a small sample of at-risk youth revealed an average of up to 6.8 hours of music-listening per day.29 Furthermore, Roberts et al found that 33% of those listening to music did so while performing other tasks or activities. These data support the idea that the prevalence of music-listening in adolescents may be even higher than that of television viewing. The reason for this is that popular music is present almost everywhere, from the supermarket to the mall, often as background music. It also is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies,11,25 allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends.
Adolescents are not the only young consumers of popular music. A study with 100 fourth- through sixth-graders revealed that 98% of these children listened to popular music, 72% of them on “most days” or every day.30 Furthermore, it has been reported that children 8 to 10 years of age listen to music an average of 1 hour per day.25 With many children and adolescents listening on iPods or other devices using headphones, parents may have little knowledge of what their children are listening to.
Research on popular music has explored several areas such as its effects on schoolwork,31 social interactions, mood and affect,20,26,27,32,33 and particularly behavior.10,11,34–36 Several theories have been developed to explain the relationship between music and behavior,15,37,38 and a number of studies have demonstrated that there is a relationship between music and emotions, regardless of age.20,23,27,39–41 Although the emotional response to music depends on the way it is presented, it is also true that it is closely related to the age of the listener and the experiences or preconceived ideas they bring to the music.2,14,39 The effect that popular music has on children's and adolescents' behavior and emotions is of paramount concern.40 There is particular concern related to the lyrics of some genres of music and their effect on children and adolescents.3,10,11,42–45
Lyrics have become more explicit in their references to drugs, sex, and violence over the years.11 A content analysis of the top 10 CDs performed by the National Institute on Media in 1999 revealed that each of these CDs included at least 1 song with sexual content. Forty-two percent of the songs on these CDs contained very explicit sexual content.46 Lyrics of some music genres, such as rock, heavy metal, rap, and new emerging genres such as reggaeton, have been found to revolve around topics such as sexual promiscuity, death, homicide, suicide, and substance abuse.9,13,17,43,45,46–53 Most recently, some rap music has been characterized by the presence of explicit sexual language in its lyrics as well as messages of violence, racism, homophobia, and hatred toward women.9,10,42,54 Drug, tobacco, and alcohol use also tend to be glorified in these songs.
In refuting concerns about the effect of lyrics, some have argued that children and adolescents use music only for entertainment, that little or no attention is paid to the words, and if any attention is given, understanding tends to be limited and related to the experiences lived by the listener.32,55 However, other studies have demonstrated the contrary.56 Approximately 17% of male adolescents and 25% of female adolescents expressed that they liked their favorite songs specifically because the lyrics were a reflection of their feelings.2 Also, it has been found that the more importance adolescents give to a certain type of music, the more attention they will pay to the lyrics.2,55,57,58 Furthermore, Knobloch-Westerwick et al have stated that although young listeners might not understand all the details in lyrics, they recognize enough to obtain a general idea of the message they bring.11
Regarding the effects of popular music on behavior, several studies have demonstrated that preference for certain types of music could be correlated or associated with certain behaviors,*such as the association of drug and alcohol use with “rave” music or electronic music dance events.13,50,51,62 Roberts et al39 performed a study in 1997 at an adolescent clinic, and their results suggested that probably the best predictor of risk in adolescents related to music is their self-report of negative feelings or emotions when listening to any type of music. The authors of that study described an association between negative emotional response to music and risk-taking behaviors and even suggested that what triggers risky behavior in some adolescents is the negative emotional response rather than the type of music. Scheel and Westefeld61 supported this suggestion in 1999. Heavy metal and some rock music have been associated in some studies with an increased risk of suicide.17,61,63,66,67 Fans of heavy metal music have been reported in the literature to have more problems with school authorities and teachers than students who are not fans of that type of music.2 Heavy metal music-listening has also been associated with increased depression, delinquency risk behavior,63–65 smoking, and conduct problems.60 Fans of heavy metal and rap music showed a greater tendency to engage in reckless behavior than their peers who were not fans of those types of music.2,14,37,68 A study performed to explore the possible effect of heavy metal music containing either sexually violent or nonviolent lyrics on males' attitudes toward women revealed that those exposed to heavy metal music, with either sexually violent or nonviolent lyrics, showed significantly more negative stereotyped attitudes toward women than those in a group instead exposed to classical music.2,69 Likewise, in a study performed by Fischer and Greitemeyer,42 men who listened to misogynistic lyrics showed increased aggressive responses toward women as well as a more negative perception of them.
In a study in which adolescents who preferred heavy metal and rap music were compared with those who preferred other types of music, results indicated that the former consistently showed below-average current and elementary school grades, with a history of counseling in elementary school for academic problems.14 A study performed in 1999 with a sample of 345 mothers from public schools revealed that 47% of the mothers believed that violent messages in rap music contribute to school violence70; yet, according to a 2007 report from the Kaiser Family Foundation on parents, children, and the media,44 only 9% of parents revealed being concerned about inappropriate content in music.
The preference for heavy metal music, rap, and associated genres among adolescents must alert us to an increased vulnerability and tendency toward risky behaviors. Adolescents at risk and with a feeling of alienation because of previous failures or problems tend to prefer these types of music, which might reflect their pessimistic view of life and the world.2,9,14,17,19,37,71 Correlational studies, however, have inherent limitations and cannot identify cause-and-effect relationships, but the associations reflect the status of the current research.
Research related to music and its effects on children and adolescents has been expanded into another expression of popular music: the music video. Music videos are appealing to children and adolescents. Considering that music videos mix 2 media that are attractive to youth (television and popular music), it is important to study their effects on a young audience and to be concerned about the messages these music videos promote.30,72 Music videos have been widely studied.29,30,55,72–93 They are mainly classified as either performance or concept videos. For a performance video, an artist or a group is filmed during a performance, usually a concert. Concept videos, on the other hand, tell the viewer a story that may or may not evolve from the song. This story may sometimes add content to the lyrics and provide a particular interpretation that is reinforced every time the viewer hears the song.72,73,75 As with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages on children and adolescents is related to the age and developmental and emotional stage of the viewer, as well as the level of exposure.
The prevalence of music-video–watching has been studied in both the United States and Europe.30,79,90,92,94 A study of 100 fourth- to sixth-graders revealed that 75% of them watched music videos, with 60% of them self-describing their frequency of viewing videos as either “pretty much” or “a lot.” Of these children, 62% watched music videos either “most days” or “every day,” and 7% watched them even before going to school.30 In 2003, a report of the Kaiser Family Foundation90 revealed that 3 of 4 of those in the 16- to 24-year-old group watch MTV, 58% watch it at least once a week, and 20% watch it for an hour or more every day. More recently, a study revealed that a sample of 12- to 15-year-olds watched music videos on an average of 4.3 days per week.92
Research on music videos has been focused mainly on content analyses. A study published in 1997 by DuRant et al76,82 described an analysis of 518 music videos on 4 television networks (MTV, VH1, CMT, and BET). This study revealed that the percentage of violence in music videos ranged from 11.5% to 22.4%, with the most violent videos having been presented on MTV. When analyzed according to type of music, rap videos had the highest portrayal of violence (20.4%), closely followed by rock videos (19.8%). Using the same sample, another study revealed that although the percentage of videos that portrayed alcohol use showed no significant differences among networks, the percentage portrayed was still significant, ranging from 18.7% to 26.9%. Of the networks, MTV had the highest percentage of alcohol representation and also the highest percentage of videos that portrayed smoking behaviors (25.7%). Of these videos, rap music videos showed a higher content of alcohol or tobacco use than did other types of videos.75 In 1998, Rich et al82 reported on the findings of content analyses that looked for gender or race differences in aggressors or victims of acts of violence portrayed in the same sample of 518 music videos. The analyses showed that black individuals were overrepresented as aggressors (25%) and as victims (41%), compared with the percentage of black individuals in the general population (12%). Studies performed by Smith and Boyson in 200293 and Gruber et al in 200591 validated these findings.
Analysis of the content in music videos is important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers.†Frequent watching of music videos has been related to an increased risk of developing beliefs in false stereotypes and an increased perceived importance of appearance and weight in adolescent girls.83 In studies performed to assess the reactions of young males exposed to violent rap music videos or sexist videos, participants reported an increased probability that they would engage in violence, a greater acceptance of the use of violence, and a greater acceptance of the use of violence against women than did participants who were not exposed to these videos.29,35,77,78,92
In 1999 Kalof84 reported that college students who were exposed to videos with stereotyped sexual images showed more acceptance of adversarial relationships than those who were not exposed. Kaestle et al92 reported in 2007 that in a group of seventh- and eighth-grade boys, watching music videos and professional wrestling was associated with an increased acceptance of date rape. A survey performed among 214 adolescents revealed that there was an association between music-video–watching and permissive sexual behaviors.76 It has also been reported that after watching MTV, adolescents' attitudes were more accepting of premarital sex.52,53,80 A survey performed among 2760 American adolescents demonstrated that listening to music and watching television and music videos more frequently was associated with increased risky behaviors68 and alcohol use85,86; these results were validated by vandenBulck and Beullens,94 who demonstrated a longitudinal relationship between adolescents' exposure to music videos and alcohol use while going out to a bar, party, disco, etc. In 2003, Wingwood et al89 reported on a study in which 522 black female adolescents with a median exposure to rap music videos of 14 hours per week were followed for 12 months. After controlling for all the covariates, greater exposure to rap music videos was independently associated with a wide variety of risky behaviors such as increased promiscuity and use of drugs and alcohol, among others. Of importance, a study performed by Austin et al98 in 2000 revealed that the potential risks of exposure to music videos can be moderated by parental reinforcement and counterreinforcement of conducts observed.
The American Academy of Pediatrics understands that, given the findings presented and our knowledge of child and adolescent development, pediatricians and parents should be aware of this information. Furthermore, with the evidence portrayed in these studies, it is essential for pediatricians and parents to take a stand regarding this issue. Therefore, the following recommendations are made.
Pediatricians should become familiar with the role of music in the lives of children and adolescents and identify music preferences of their patients as clues to emotional conflict or problems.99
Pediatricians should become familiar with the literature available on the effects of music and music videos on children and adolescents.36,38,100–103
Pediatricians should explore with patients and their parents what types of music they listen to and music videos they watch and under which circumstances they consume these media.
Pediatricians should encourage parents to take an active role in monitoring the type of music to which their children and adolescents are exposed and to be aware of the music they purchase.104–106 Parents can find lyrics by typing “music lyrics” into an Internet search engine and accessing 1 or more of the Web sites that appear. Pediatricians also should counsel parents and caregivers to monitor and regulate television-viewing according to the age and maturity of their children and adolescents.
Pediatricians should encourage parents and caregivers to become media literate.
Pediatricians should sponsor and participate in local and national coalitions to discuss the effects of music on children and adolescents to make the public and parents aware of sexually explicit, drug-oriented, or violent lyrics on CDs and cassettes, in music videos, on the Internet, and in emerging technologies.
The public, and parents in particular, should be aware of and use the music industry's parental advisory warning of explicit content. The advisory label is a black-and-white logo and should be located on the front of the CD, cassette, album, videocassette, or DVD. It may help protect children from certain offensive materials.
Performers should serve as positive role models for children and teenagers.
The music-video industry should produce videos with more positive themes about relationships, racial harmony, drug avoidance, nonviolent conflict resolution, sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, and avoidance of promiscuity.
Further research on the effects of popular music, lyrics, and music videos on children and adolescents is important and should be conducted.107
Council on Communications and Media Executive Committee, 2008–2009
Gilbert L. Fuld, MD, Chairperson
Deborah A. Mulligan, MD, Chairperson-Elect
Tanya Remer Altmann, MD
Ari Brown, MD
Dimitri Christakis, MD
Kathleeen Clarke-Pearson, MD
Benard P. Dreyer, MD
Holly L. Falik, MD
Kathleen G. Nelson, MD
Gwen S. O'Keefe, MD
Victor C. Strasburger, MD
FORMER EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBERS
*M. Rosario González deRivas, MD
Regina M. Milteer, MD
Donald L. Shifrin, MD
Michael Brody, MD
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Brian Wilcox, PhD
American Psychological Association
Veronica Laude Noland
Gina Ley Steiner
↵* Refs 2, 10, 17, 29, 37, 39, 42, and 59–65.
↵† Refs 29, 35, 52, 53, 68, 72, 76–78, 80, 85, 89, 92 and 94–97.
This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication.
↵* Lead author
The popularity and worldwide scope of rock music resulted in a powerful impact on society. Rock and roll influenced daily life, fashion, attitudes and language in a way few other social developments have equalled. As the original generations of rock and roll fans matured, the music became an accepted and deeply interwoven thread in popular culture. Beginning in the early 1950s, rock songs and acts began to be used in a few television commercials; within a decade this practice became widespread, and rock music also featured in film and television program soundtracks.
In the cross-over of African American "race music" to a growing white youth audience, the popularization of rock and roll involved both black performers reaching a white audience and white performers appropriating African-American music. Rock and roll appeared at a time when racial tensions in the United States were entering a new phase, with the beginnings of the civil rights movement for desegregation, leading to the Supreme Court ruling that abolished the policy of "separate but equal" in 1954, but leaving a policy which would be extremely difficult to enforce in parts of the United States. The coming together of white youth audiences and black music in rock and roll, inevitably provoked strong white racist reactions within the US, with many whites condemning its breaking down of barriers based on color. Many observers saw rock and roll as heralding the way for desegregation, in creating a new form of music that encouraged racial cooperation and shared experience. Many authors have argued that early rock and roll was instrumental in the way both white and black teenagers identified themselves.
Sex and drugs
See also: Wine, women and song
The rock and roll lifestyle was popularly associated with sex and drugs. Many of rock and roll's early stars (as well as their jazz and blues counterparts) were known as hard-drinking, hard-living characters. During the 1960s the lifestyles of many stars became more publicly known, aided by the growth of the underground rock press. Musicians had always attracted attention of "groupies" (girls who followed musicians) who spent time with and often performed sexual favors for band members.
As the stars' lifestyles became more public, the popularity and promotion of recreational drug use by musicians may have influenced use of drugs and the perception of acceptability of drug use among the youth of the period. For example, when in the late 1960s the Beatles, who had previously been marketed as clean-cut youths, started publicly acknowledging using LSD, many fans followed. Journalist Al Aronowitz wrote "...whatever the Beatles did was acceptable, especially for young people." Jerry Garcia, of the rock band Grateful Dead said, "For some people, taking LSD and going to Grateful Dead show functions like a rite of passage ... we don't have a product to sell; but we do have a mechanism that works."
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, much of the rock and roll cachet associated with drug use dissipated as rock music suffered a series of drug-related deaths, including the 27 Club-member deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and Jim Morrison. Although some amount of drug use remained common among rock musicians, a greater respect for the dangers of drug consumption was observed, and many anti-drug songs became part of the rock lexicon, notably "The Needle and the Damage Done" by Neil Young (1972).
Many rock musicians, including John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Bob Dylan, Jerry Garcia, Stevie Nicks, Jimmy Page, Keith Richards, Bon Scott, Eric Clapton, Pete Townshend, Brian Wilson, Carl Wilson, Dennis Wilson, Steven Tyler, Scott Weiland, Sly Stone, Madonna, Ozzy Osbourne, Mötley Crüe, Layne Staley, Kurt Cobain, Courtney Love, Lemmy, Whitney Houston, Bobby Brown, Buffy Sainte Marie, Dave Matthews, David Crosby, Anthony Kiedis, Dave Mustaine, David Bowie, Richard Wright, Phil Rudd, Elton John, Phil Anselmo, James Hetfield, Kirk Hammett, Joe Walsh, and others, have acknowledged battling addictions to many substances including alcohol, cocaine and heroin; many of these have successfully undergone drug rehabilitation programs, but others have died.
In the early 1980s. along with the rise of the band Minor Threat, a straight edge lifestyle became popular. The straight edge philosophy of abstinence from recreational drugs, alcohol, tobacco and sex became associated with some hardcore punks through the years, and both remain popular with youth today.
Rock music and fashion have been inextricably linked. In the mid-1960s of the UK, rivalry arose between "Mods" (who favoured 'modern' Italian-led fashion) and "Rockers" (who wore motorcycle leathers), each style had their own favored musical acts. (The controversy would form the backdrop for The Who's rock operaQuadrophenia). In the 1960s, The Beatles brought mop-top haircuts, collarless blazers, and Beatle Boots into fashion.
Rock musicians were also early adopters of hippie fashion and popularised such styles as long hair and the Nehru jacket. As rock music genres became more segmented, what an artist wore became as important as the music itself in defining the artist's intent and relationship to the audience. In the early 1970s, glam rock became widely influential featuring glittery fashions, high heels and camp. In the late 1970s, disco acts helped bring flashy urban styles to the mainstream, while punk groups began wearing mock-conservative attire, (including suit jackets and skinny ties), in an attempt to be as unlike mainstream rock musicians, who still favored blue jeans and hippie-influenced clothes.
Heavy Metal bands in the 1980s often favoured a strong visual image. For some bands, this consisted of leather or denim jackets and pants, spike/studs and long hair. Visual image was a strong component of the glam metal movement.
In the early 1990s, the popularity of grunge brought in a punk influenced fashion of its own, including torn jeans, old shoes, flannel shirts, backwards baseball hats, and people grew their hair against the clean-cut image that was popular at the time in heavily commercialized pop music culture.
Musicians continue to be fashion icons; pop-culture magazines such as Rolling Stone often include fashion layouts featuring musicians as models.
Main article: Selling out
Rock musicians and fans have consistently struggled with the paradox of "selling out"—to be considered "authentic", rock music must keep a certain distance from the commercial world and its constructs; [clarification needed] however it is widely believed that certain compromises must be made in order to become successful and to make music available to the public. This dilemma has created friction between musicians and fans, with some bands going to great lengths to avoid the appearance of "selling out" (while still finding ways to make a lucrative living). In some styles of rock, such as punk and heavy metal, a performer who is believed to have "sold out" to commercial interests may be labelled with the pejorative term "poseur".
If a performer first comes to public attention with one style, any further stylistic development may be seen as selling out to long-time fans. On the other hand, managers and producers may progressively take more control of the artist, as happened, for instance, in Elvis Presley's swift transition in species from "The Hillbilly Cat" to "your teddy bear". It can be difficult to define the difference between seeking a wider audience and selling out. Ray Charles left behind his classic formulation of rhythm and blues to sing country music, pop songs and soft-drink commercials. In the process, he went from a niche audience to worldwide fame. In the end, it is a moral judgement made by the artist, the management, and the audience.
Charitable and social causes
Love and peace were very common themes in rock music during the 1960s and 1970s. Rock musicians have often attempted to address social issues directly as commentary or as calls to action. During the Vietnam War the first rock protest songs were heard, inspired by the songs of folk musicians such as Woody Guthrie and Bob Dylan, which ranged from abstract evocations of peace Peter, Paul and Mary's "If I Had a Hammer" to blunt anti-establishment diatribes Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young's "Ohio". Other musicians, notably John Lennon and Yoko Ono, were vocal in their anti-war sentiment both in their music and in public statements with songs such as "Imagine", and "Give Peace a Chance".
Famous rock musicians have adopted causes ranging from the environment (Marvin Gaye's "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)") and the Anti-Apartheid Movement (Peter Gabriel's "Biko"), to violence in Northern Ireland (U2's "Sunday Bloody Sunday") and worldwide economic policy (the Dead Kennedys' "Kill the Poor"). Another notable protest song is Patti Smith's recording "People Have the Power." On occasion this involvement would go beyond simple songwriting and take the form of sometimes-spectacular concerts or televised events, often raising money for charity and awareness of global issues.
Rock and roll as social activism reached a milestone in the Live Aid concerts, held July 13, 1985, which were an outgrowth of the 1984 charity single "Do They Know It's Halloween?" and became the largest musical concert in history with performers on two main stages, one in London, England and the other in Philadelphia, USA (plus some other acts performing in other countries) and televised worldwide. The concert lasted 16 hours and featured nearly everybody who was in the forefront of rock and pop in 1985. The charity event raised millions of dollars for famine relief in Africa. Live Aid became a model for many other fund-raising and consciousness-raising efforts, including the Farm Aid concerts for family farmers in North America, and televised performances benefiting victims of the September 11 attacks. Live Aid itself was reprised in 2005 with the Live 8 concert, to raise awareness of global economic policy. Environmental issues have also been a common theme, one example being Live Earth.
Songwriters such as Pete Townshend have explored these spiritual aspects within their work. The common usage of the term "rock god" acknowledges the religious quality of the adulation some rock stars receive. John Lennon became infamous for a statement he made in 1966 that The Beatles were "more popular than Jesus Christ". However, he later said that this statement was misunderstood and not meant to be anti-Christian.
Iron Maiden, Ozzy Osbourne, King Diamond, Alice Cooper, Led Zeppelin, Marilyn Manson, Slayer and numerous others have also been accused of being satanists, immoral or otherwise having an "evil" influence on their listeners. Anti-religious sentiments also appear in punk and hardcore. There's the example of the song "Filler" by Minor Threat, the name and famous logo of the band Bad Religion and criticism of Christianity and all religions is an important theme in anarcho-punk and crust punk.
Christian rock, alternative rock, metal, punk, and hardcore are specific, identifiable genres of rock music with strong Christian overtones and influence. Many groups and individuals who are not considered to be Christian rock artists have religious beliefs themselves. For example; The Edge and Bono of U2 are a Methodist and an Anglican, respectively; Bruce Springsteen is a Roman Catholic; and Brandon Flowers of The Killers is a Latter Day Saint.Carlos Santana, Ted Nugent, and John Mellencamp are all other examples of rock stars who profess some form of Christian faith.
However, some conservative Christians single out the music genres of hip hop and rock as well as blues and jazz as containing jungle beats, or jungle music, and claim that it is a beat or musical style that is inherently evil, immoral, or sensual. Thus, according to them, any song in the rap, hip hop and rock genres is inherently evil because of the song's musical beat, regardless of the song's lyrics or message. A few even extend this analysis even to Christian rock songs.
Christian conservative author David Noebel is one of the most notable opponents of the existence of jungle beats. In his writings and speeches, Noebel held that the use of such beats in music was a communist plot to subvert the morality of the youth of the United States.Pope Benedict XVI was quoted as saying, according to the British Broadcasting Corporation, that "Rock... is the expression of the elemental passions, and at rock festivals it assumes a sometimes cultic character, a form of worship, in fact, in opposition to Christian worship."
See also: Hell's Bells: The Dangers of Rock 'N' Roll
Some metal bands use demonic imagery for artistic and/or entertainment purposes, though they do not worship or believe in Satan.Ozzy Osbourne is reported to be Anglican and Alice Cooper is a known born-again Christian. In some cases, though, metal performers have expressed satanic views. Numerous others in the early Norwegian black metal scene were Satanists.The most known example of this is Euronymous, who claimed that he worshiped Satan as a god. Varg Vikernes (back then called "the Count" or Grishnak) have also been called a Satanist, even through he have rejected that label. Even within this localized musical subgenre, however, the arson attacks against Christian churches and other centers of worship were condemned by some prominent figures within the Norwegian black metal scene, such as Kjetil Manheim.
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