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Class Divided Summary Essay Thesis

On the day after Martin Luther King Jr. was murdered in April 1968, Jane Elliott’s third graders from the small, all-white town of Riceville, Iowa, came to class confused and upset. They recently had made King their “Hero of the Month,” and they couldn’t understand why someone would kill him. So Elliott decided to teach her class a daring lesson in the meaning of discrimination. She wanted to show her pupils what discrimination feels like, and what it can do to people.

Elliott divided her class by eye color — those with blue eyes and those with brown. On the first day, the blue-eyed children were told they were smarter, nicer, neater, and better than those with brown eyes. Throughout the day, Elliott praised them and allowed them privileges such as a taking a longer recess and being first in the lunch line. In contrast, the brown-eyed children had to wear collars around their necks and their behavior and performance were criticized and ridiculed by Elliott. On the second day, the roles were reversed and the blue-eyed children were made to feel inferior while the brown eyes were designated the dominant group.

What happened over the course of the unique two-day exercise astonished both students and teacher. On both days, children who were designated as inferior took on the look and behavior of genuinely inferior students, performing poorly on tests and other work. In contrast, the “superior” students — students who had been sweet and tolerant before the exercise — became mean-spirited and seemed to like discriminating against the “inferior” group.

“I watched what had been marvelous, cooperative, wonderful, thoughtful children turn into nasty, vicious, discriminating little third-graders in a space of fifteen minutes,” says Elliott. She says she realized then that she had “created a microcosm of society in a third-grade classroom.”

Elliott repeated the exercise with her new classes in the following year. The third time, in 1970, cameras were present. Fourteen years later, FRONTLINE’s A Class Divided chronicled a mini-reunion of that 1970 third-grade class. As young adults, Elliott’s former students watch themselves on film and talk about the impact Elliott’s lesson in bigotry has had on their lives and attitudes. It is Jane Elliott’s first chance to find out how much of her lesson her students had retained.

“Nobody likes to be looked down upon. Nobody likes to be hated, teased or discriminated against,” says Verla, one of the former students.

Another, Sandra, tells Elliott: “You hear these people talking about different people and how they’d like to have them out of the country. And sometimes I just wish I had that collar in my pocket. I could whip it out and put it on and say ‘Wear this, and put yourself in their place.’ I wish they would go through what I went through, you know.”

In the last part of A Class Divided, FRONTLINE’s cameras follow Jane Elliott as she takes her exercise to employees of the Iowa prison system. During a daylong workshop in human relations she teaches the same lesson to the adults. Their reactions to the blue-eye, brown-eye exercise are similar to those of the children.

“After you do this exercise, when the debriefing starts, when the pain is over and they’re all back together, you find out how society could be if we really believed all this stuff that we preach, if we really acted that way, you could feel as good about one another as those kids feel about one another after this exercise is over. You create instant cousins,” says Elliott. “The kids said over and over, ‘We’re kind of like a family now.’ They found out how to hurt one another and they found out how it feels to be hurt in that way and they refuse to hurt one another in that way again.”

Originally published January 2003

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Following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, teacher Jane Elliott knew she had to do something. Riceville, Iowa, the town in which she lived, was totally homogeneous and, as a result, she realized that her students had no firsthand experience with discrimination. A Class Divided: Then and Now chronicles Elliott's courageous experiment and the life-altering impact it had on her students.

On the day after King's assassination, Elliott segregated her class according to eye color. Students with brown eyes were considered superior to those with blue eyes. They were afforded extra time at recess, a second helping at lunch and the sense of self-worth that goes along with feeling above everyone else. The blue-eyed students wore collars so that their eye color could be distinguished from afar. The following day, Elliott turned the tables by giving the blue-eyed students privileges and making the brown-eyed students second class citizens. Elliott watched with fascination as her classroom became a microcosm of society. The superior group quickly embraced their elite status and turned on the inferior group. They readily adopted the "propaganda" Elliott spouted about the other group's habits and ethics. Word of Elliott's lesson spread, and in 1970, she found herself with a camera crew in her classroom to document what few other teachers of the day were willing to confront.

In 1984, the class reunited to watch the documentary and talk about the life lessons they learned fourteen years earlier. Elliott's former students spoke of how they are accepting of others in a town where discrimination still reared its ugly head. They talked about teaching their children tolerance and acceptance in a town where those values were not standard practice. The book and documentary also record Elliott's training of guards in the Iowa Department of Corrections. It is fascinating to learn that adults fall right into the same pattern of discrimination as the third graders had.

Author William Peters penned A Class Divided: Then and Now (1987) several years after the first edition of A Class Divided (1971) was published. The book is based on the 1970 ABC News documentary The Eye of the Storm. The book and the documentary are still widely used today in schools across America.